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Evidence-Based Programs

All Evidence-Based Programs

Be Proud! Be Responsible! Be Protective!

Overview of the Curriculum

Be Proud! Be Responsible! Be Protective! targets adolescent mothers or pregnant girls and is an adaptation of the Be Proud! Be Responsible! curriculum.

Curriculum Sessions

This is an eight-part curriculum that provides adolescents with the knowledge, motivation, and skills necessary to change their behaviors in ways that will reduce their risk of contracting STDs, HIV, and unplanned or repeat pregnancies. The curriculum consists of eight 60-minute modules, which can be presented over one to eight days and include the following:

  • Module 1: Introduction to HIV and AIDS and Their Relationship to Teen Motherhood
  • Module 2: Building Knowledge about HIV and Unplanned Pregnancy
  • Module 3: Understanding Vulnerability to HIV Infection and Unplanned Repeat Pregnancy
  • Module4: Understanding Vulnerability to HIV Infection and Unplanned Repeat Pregnancy (Part 2)
  • Module 5: Attitudes and Beliefs about HIV, AIDS, and Safer Sex
  • Module 6: Attitudes and Beliefs about HIV, AIDS, and Safer Sex (Part 2)
  • Module 7: Building Condom Use Skills
  • Module 8: Building Negotiation and Refusal Skills
  • The program is delivered through structured activities, group discussions, viewing of DVDs, and role-plays.

    Unique Features of the Curriculum

    The curriculum was modified for use with pregnant and parenting adolescents and employs maternal protectiveness as a motivator for positive changes in sexual behavior. This curriculum acknowledges and works with the concept that to change behavior, adolescents need not only information and a perception of personal vulnerability, but also the skills and the confidence in their ability to act safely.

    Theoretical Framework

    The theoretical framework underlying the program utilizes Social Cognitive Theory and the Theory of Reasoned Action.

    Social Cognitive Theory states that individual learning is influenced by personal factors, behavior, and environmental influences.

    Theory of Reasoned Action is focused on individual motivation. Factors that determine if a person is likely to engage in a specific health behavior are also included. According to this theory, what a person intends to do is a good predictor of what they will actually do.

    Ordering and Training Information

    Ordering: Intervention materials can be purchased from ETR by calling 800-321-4407 or visiting Preview modules are available upon request. The evidence-based implementation kit includes: facilitator curriculum, activity set with role-play, implementaiton DVDs, and one student workbook.

    Training: Contact ETR for information on training.

    Evaluation Fact Sheet


    The intervention aims to affect knowledge, beliefs, and intentions related to condom use and sexual behaviors such as initiation and frequency of intercourse. It also addresses the impact of HIV/AIDS on pregnant women and their children, the prevention of disease during pregnancy and the postpartum period, and special concerns of young mothers.

    Behavioral Findings

    Pretest findings revealed that 76% of the adolescents had been sexually active during the past three months; only 24% of young women had used a condom the last time they had sex. 19% reported engaging in anal sex. Histories of physical (29%) and/or sexual abuse (33%) were common. Comparison of pretest and 6-week post-intervention data, using t-test analyses, revealed the following significant findings: 1) AIDS knowledge increased, 2) intention to use condoms and reported condom use increased, and 3) perceived behavioral control increased.

    Responses to four open-ended questions were generally positive in nature. Results suggest that the curriculum is effective with pregnant and parenting adolescents. At the 6-month follow-up: adolescents participating in the intervention reported having significantly fewer sexual partners in the previous 3 months.

    Research Design

    The study worked with pregnant or parenting female adolescents in grades 7 through 12 from schools in four school districts in Los Angeles County, California. Participants had a mean age of 16.7 years and were 78% Hispanic, 18% African American, and 4% other.

    A pretest, posttest, one-group research design was employed. The program was presented in three 2-hour sessions at an alternative high school for pregnant and parenting teens in Cerritos, California. The sample included 20 predominantly minority adolescents (17 non-pregnant and 3 pregnant mothers) ranging in age from 14 to 19 years, with one or two children. Responses were evaluated by quantitative and qualitative methods.


    Koniak-Griffin, D., Lesser, J., Nyamathi, A., Uman, G., Stein, J. A., & Cumberland, W. G. (2003). Project CHARM: An HIV prevention program for adolescent mothers. Family and Community Health, 26, 94-107.