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Statistics

All Statistics

Contraceptive Use

What percentage of sexually active teens report using a condom or another birth control method at last intercourse?

  • In 2013, 59% of sexually active students reported that either they or their partner had used a condom during last sexual intercourse.3
  • Male high school students were more likely to use a condom the last time they had sex than were females (66% vs. 53%).3
  • In 2013, black sexually active high school students were more likely than their Hispanic or white peers to report condom use during last sexual intercourse.3
  • Condoms were used by 63% of 9th graders, 62% of 10th-11th graders, and only 53% of 12th graders during their last sexual intercourse.3
  • In 2013, among the currently sexually active students nationwide, 19% reported that either they or their partner had used birth control pills to prevent pregnancy before last sexual intercourse.3
  • Use of birth control pills before last sexual intercourse was higher among white (25.9%) than black (8.2%) and Hispanic (9%) students.3
  • Use of birth control pills before last sexual intercourse was higher among 10th-grade (16.7%), 11th-grade (19.3%), and 12th-grade (23.7%) than 9th-grade (11.4%) students.3
  • In 2013, 1.6% of currently sexually active students nationwide reported that either they or their partner had used an IUD (such as Mirena or ParaGard) or implant (such as Implanon or Nexplanon) to prevent pregnancy before last sexual intercourse.3
  • Use of an IUD or implant before last sexual intercourse was higher among 11th-grade (1.5%) and 12th-grade (2.5%) than 9th-grade (0.5%) students.3
  • In 2013, 4.7% of the currently sexually active students nationwide reported that either they or their partner had used a shot (such as Depo-Provera), patch (such as OrthoEvra), or birth control ring (such as NuvaRing) to prevent pregnancy before last sexual intercourse.3
  • The use of a shot, patch, or birth control ring before last sexual intercourse was higher among black female (10.1%) than white female (4.8%) students.3
  • In 2013, 25% of the currently sexually active students nationwide reported that either they or their partner had used birth control pills; an IUD (such as Mirena or ParaGard) or implant (such as Implanon or Nexplanon); or a shot (such as Depo-Provera), patch (such as OrthoEvra), or birth control ring (such as NuvaRing) to prevent pregnancy before last sexual intercourse.3
  • In 2013, 8.8% of the currently sexually active students nationwide reported that either they or their partner had used both a condom during last sexual intercourse and birth control pills; an IUD (such as Mirena or ParaGard) or implant (such as Implanon or Nexplanon); or a shot (such as Depo-Provera), patch (such as OrthoEvra), or birth control ring (such as NuvaRing) to prevent pregnancy before last sexual intercourse.3

What are the trends in contraceptive use among sexually active teens at last intercourse?

  • Condom use at last sex increased from 1991 to 2013 (46% to 59% respectively).3
  • Condom use during last sexual intercourse increased from 1991–2003 (46.2%–63.0%) and then decreased from 2003–2013 (63%–59%).3
  • Condom use during last sex did not change from 2011 (60%) to 2013 (59%).3
  • The use of birth control pills before last sexual intercourse decreased from 1991–1995 (20.8%–17.4%) and then increased from 1995–2013 (17.4%–19.0%).3
  • The use of birth control pills before last sexual intercourse did not change significantly from 2011 (18.0%) to 2013 (19.0%).3
  • Condom and contraceptive use among adolescents has increased since the 1990s, but many adolescents are inconsistent users: of those who had sex in the past month, almost one in four males and almost four in ten females did not use a condom.5

What factors lead to increased contraception use?

  • Male and female teens’ contraceptive use in their first sexual relationship was significantly associated with contraceptive use in later relationships. Conversely, males who did not use contraception during a first sexual relationship were less likely than other males to use contraception in their current relationship. Females who did not use contraception at first sex were also less likely than other females to use contraception in later relationships.4
  • Males who reported engaging with their partners in more couple-like activities were almost twice as likely to have ever used and always used contraception. For females, having discussed contraception before sex was also associated with increased odds of having ever used and consistently used contraception in later relationships.4
  • For females, if a partner was initially a stranger to her, she was less likely to use contraception than if the partner had been previously known to her. In addition, females’ likelihood of using contraception was reduced by 20% for each additional partner they had ever had.4
  • Women with ambivalent attitudes toward pregnancy use contraceptives less consistently and effectively than those with clear, firm motivation to avoid pregnancy.2
  • Males who suffered sexual abuse in the past are far less likely to use contraception than males who never suffered such abuse.2
  • In 2012, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists revised its practice guidelines on LARCs, including implants and IUDs. Based on research and expert opinions, the new guidelines advise that adolescents who are sexually active and at high risk of unintended pregnancy should be encouraged to consider LARCs as a contraceptive option.1

References

1 American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2012). Adolescents and long-acting reversible contraception: Implants and intrauterine devices. Committee Opinion No. 539. Obstet Gynecol, 120 , 983-988. Retrieved from http://www.acog.org/Resources-And-Publications/Committee-Opinions/Committee-on-Adolescent-Health-Care/Adolescents-and-Long-Acting-Reversible-Contraception

2 Frost, J. J., Singh, S., & Finer, L. B. (2007, June). Factors associated with contraceptive use and nonuse, United States, 2004. Perspectives on Sexual & Reproductive Health, 39(2), 90-99. Retrieved from https://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/journals/3909007.pdf

3 Kann, L., Kinchen, S., Shanklin, S. L., Flint, K. H., Hawkins, J., Harris, W. A., & Zaza, S. (2014). Youth risk behavior surveillance—United States, 2013. MMWR Surveill Summ, 63(4). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/ss/ss6304.pdf

4 Manlove, J., Ryan, S., & Franzetta, K. (2004, November/December). Contraceptive use and consistency in U.S. teenagers' most recent sexual relationships. Perspectives on Sexual & Reproductive Health, 36(6), 265-275. Retrieved from https://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/journals/3626504.pdf

5 Martinez, G., Copen, C. E., & Abma, J. C. (2011). Teenagers in the United States: Sexual activity, contraceptive use, and childbearing, 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth. National Center for Health Statistics. Vital and Health Statistics, 23(31). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/series/sr_23/sr23_031.pdf