Join us for YTH Live Global! Learn More

ETR Logo ETR Logo ReCAPP logo

etr presents YTH LIVE Global 2021: October 4-6: Virtual. Register now at

Theories and Approaches

In this section, users will find definitions and rationales behind common theories (i.e., social cognitive theory, stages of change theory) and approaches (i.e., male involvement, service learning, youth development) used in developing adolescent pregnancy prevention programs. Also included are descriptions of real programs using specific theories and approaches as well as practical steps for incorporating different theories and approaches into programs.

  • Adolescent Development
    by Kathryn Pierno
    Includes: an overview of adolescent development — key features and major questions facing adolescents; a comparison of three developmental theories — Freud's, Erikson's, and Piaget's; a discussion of the physical, cognitive, emotional, social, and behavioral aspects of adolescent development; relevant questions for those working with teens; and references.
  • BDI Logic Model
    by Doug Kirby, ETR
  • Chlamydia: Starting a School-Based Chlamydia Screening Treatment Program
    by Nicole Lezin and Julie Taylor, ETR
  • End Notes
  • Health Belief Model (HBM)
    Definition and rationale, background information, how to apply, challenges and considerations, resources.
  • International Girls Development
    An introduction and background information on international girls development and an overview of model programs in Bangladesh, Brazil, and Philippines. Recommended strategies and references also included.
  • Male Involvement and Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention
    by Robert Becker, ReCAPP Consultant
    PDF version
  • Peer Education in Teen Pregnancy Prevention
    by Nicole Lezin, ReCAPP Consultant
    Includes: background information on peer education — definition, rationale and effectiveness; characteristics of effective peer education programs; challenges and benefits of peer education; case study of peer educator training curriculum; resources; sample program and evaluation forms; and more.
  • Peer Education Resources
    Peer Education
  • Program Evaluation Basics
    Information and links to information on planning and evaluating health education programs. Includes: slide show presentation with information on impact, outcome and process evaluation, constructing good evaluation tools, and more; sample focus group protocols; sample questionnaires and permission forms; facilitator guidelines; resources; and more.
  • Resources for More Information on the Health Belief Model
    Health Belief Model
  • Service Learning
    Its impact on pregnancy prevention, including an example of a service learning program — Teen Outreach Program (TOP).
  • Sexual Risk and Protective Factors
    Factors affecting teen sexual behavior, pregnancy, childbearing, and STD: Which are important? Which can you change?
  • Social Learning Theory
    What they are and how to apply them to sexuality education.
  • Stages of Change Model
    by Nicole Lezin, ReCAPP Consultant
    This model recognizes that behavior change is a complex process, that individuals trying to change unhealthy behavior are in different stages of that process, and that relapse is not failure but a learning opportunity. It can be a useful model for health educators and others seeking behavior change because it helps them tailor health messages and interventions to specific individuals and groups according to the stages of change they are in.
  • Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA)
    by Nicole Lezin, ReCAPP Consultant
    This theory has been used to explain and predict many different health behaviors ranging from smoking to seat belt use. It is particularly relevant to sexuality education because it focuses on beliefs and values which strongly influence the decisions young people make about their sexual behavior. Includes: an introduction and definitions, key concepts, information on how TRA was developed, relevant research studies, resources and more.
  • Tool to Assess the Characteristics of Effective Sex and STD/HIV Education Programs
    This resource utilizes an organized set of questions designed to help practitioners assess whether curriculum-based programs have incorporated the common characteristics of effective sex and HIV education programs.
  • Using Research to Improve Practice
    Information on how to interpret research on adolescent reproductive health and use this research to improve or strengthen programs. Includes a slide presentation, worksheets, an assessment form, sample profiles, links, and more.
  • Youth Development and Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention
    by Nicole Lezin, ReCAPP Consultant
    PDF version
  • Youth Mentoring
    by Mark Fulop
    Includes: an introduction; information about the four dimensions of designing a mentor program; what we know about youth mentoring; mentoring and pregnancy prevention; case studies; implications for practice; advice on how to get started with your own mentoring program; web, book and other resources; and references.